Factors in kids' brain development (Part II)

Childhood is a critical period of development when children experience a variety of changes. One of the most significant changes is the transitioning into the formal schooling environment from preschool settings or in-home care.

This transition is important because, traditionally, this is when children begin to develop independence from their parents as they spend significantly more time away from their parents in school with their teachers and peers taking on new roles are paired with the rapid development of cognitive and social abilities.

School readiness encompasses children’s development across multiple domains, including: behavioural, social, cognitive, language, and physical development. Let’s take a look at what factors that lead to the development of cognitive abilities of children.

#4 Parent involvement

The importance of parent involvement in the development of children has been studied extensively, showing that high levels of parent involvement are associated with high and positive levels of academic achievement and social-emotional competence throughout childhood and adolescence.

#5 Bilingualism and beyond

Bilingual and multilingualism may be associated with a number of cognitive benefits. Research also shown that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals in the measures that include abstract and symbolic representations, attention control and problem solving.

#6 Breastfeeding

Research suggested that breast milk may provide even more benefits for premature infants in cognitive development than full-term infants do, increased with duration of breastfeeding. In the studies, higher levels of cognitive function were seen in breast-fed than in formula-fed children at 6 to 23 months of age and these differences were stable across successive ages.

#7 Quality teacher-child interaction

Studies indicated that quality teacher–child interactions important for performance in general executive functioning, working memory, especially for children at the beginning of preschool. This suggests that teachers can promote the cognitive processes that are essential in children’s learning by changing their behaviour to create an emotionally positive, structured, and cognitively stimulating classroom environment.

(Updated : December, 2019)

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references:

  1. Zeng, et.al. 2017. Effects of Physical Activity on Motor Skills and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: A Systematic Review. https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/2760716/

  2. Ip, et.al.. 2017. Impact of nutritional supplements on cognitive development of children in developing countries: A meta-analysis https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-11023-4

  3. Rao, et.al. 2017. Effectiveness of early childhood interventios in promoting cognitive development in developing countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis http://www.hkjpaed.org/pdf/2017;22;14-25.pdf

  4. Adescope, et.al. 2010. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Cognitive Correlates of Bilingualism https://www.albany.edu/~mm924921/Adesope%20et%20al.pdf

  5. Anderson, et.al. 1999. Breast-feeding and cognitive development: a meta-analysis https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/70/4/525/4729098

  6. Ravi, et.al. 2019. Cognitive and motor outcomes in children born low birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies from South Asia https://bmcpediatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12887-019-1408-8

  7. O’Neill et.al. 2014. More than child’s play: the potential benefits of play-based interventions for young children with ADHD https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1586/ern.12.106

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