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Erectile Dysfunction

Erectile Dysfunction is defined as the inability to achieve a turgid full erection so as to perform penetration and sexual intercourse.​

Risk Factors

  • Aging with/without lower urinary tract symptoms (above the age of 40 years old)

  • An unhealthy lifestyle, i.e. stress, smoking and drinking

  • Medical conditions includes diabetes, stroke, renal failure, liver disease and atherosclerotic hypertension

  • Medication (anti-hypertensive and anti-ulcer medications)

  • Trauma / Operation involving the penis, prostate, urethra, urinary bladder, inguinal area or the testes

  • Prior bad sexual experience


  • Vascular (blockage of the artery supply to the penis and resulting in full rigidity)

  • Endocrine (very rare)

  • Neurological (stroke and dementia for older age group while younger patients likely due to trauma like post Road Traffic Accident or post-operation)

  • Psychological (anxiety or due to medication for the treatment of psychiatric disorders)

  • Combined of vascular and neurological causes (diabetes mellitus, followed by a combination of endocrine, vascular and neurological causes)

  • Trauma​


There is no medication that would prevent erectile dysfunction. To be effective, the prevention of erectile dysfunction will have to start as early as in the early 30s with:

  • A healthy lifestyle

  • Regular exercise

  • Cessation of smoking habits

  • Good control of medical conditions

  • Early treatment so that the progression and stress will be less.



There is no fixed or standard protocol for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. This will depend on the individual’s lifestyle and desires. The treatments include:

  • Oral medication

  • Injection of prostaglandin E1

  • Vacuum device

  • Prosthesis

Disclaimer: This is not a guide to self-diagnose. We encourage to seek urologist advice further.

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